Types of Ice

Condensed from Sea-Ice Nomenclature, by J. M. Wordie.

Slush or Sludge.
Pancake Ice. (Ruffled, turned-up edges.)
Young Ice. (Black ice. Ice flowers. Young ice.)
Land floes.
Floe. (Light floes, and heavy floes. Heavy floes covered with deep snow in the Antarctic.)
Hummocking. (All the processes of pressure formation.)
Hummocky floes.
The pack. (General reference term for sea ice, no matter what the composition.)
Pack ice. (Can be close or tight.)
Drift Ice. (A stage in the breaking down of pack ice, commonly near the swell.)
Bergy bits.
Growlers. (“Treacherous fragments of ice that float with surface wash.”)
Lead or Lane. (Navigable cracks.)

[There are also 6 kinds from the Danish charts — unbroken polar ice, land floe, great ice fields, tight pack ice, open ice, bay ice, and brash. Bay ice is more generally known as young ice.]

About Ernest Shackleton

Polar Explorer. Leader of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914-1917.
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